Articaine with submucosal administration in the mouth has a high diffusion capacity. Contact proteins is 95%. The active substance in minimally cross the placental barrier, virtually excreted in breast milk, half-life is 25 minutes.
Infiltration and conduction anesthesia oxymethobol in dentistry (especially in patients with severe concomitant somatic diseases), including during the following manipulations:
- uncomplicated removal of one or more teeth;
- filling cavities, turning of the teeth before dissection.Contraindications
- Hypersensitivity to articaine, epinephrine, sulfites, and any ancillary components of the formulation;
- paroxysmal tachycardia and other tachyarrhythmias;
- bronchial asthma with hypersensitivity to sulfites;
- angle-closure glaucoma, simultaneous reception of non-selective beta-blockers;
- a severe form of liver failure (porphyria);
- concomitant therapy monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants,
- cardiogenic shock.With caution used in the following cases:
- chronic heart failure,
- intraventricular and atrioventricular heart block,
- inflammation in the intended anesthetic
- cholinesterase deficiency,
- renal failure,
- arterial oxymethobol hypertension,
- elderly age,
- severe general condition, debilitated patients.Use during pregnancy and lactation
is possible to use the drug during pregnancy. If necessary, use in nursing mothers is not necessary to interrupt the feeding, since the active substances are not excreted in breast milk in clinically relevant amounts.Dosing and Administration
In uncomplicated removal of the upper jaw teeth in the absence of inflammation is usually injected into the submucosa in the transition folds from the vestibular side of 1.7 ml of the drug (for each tooth). In some cases, it may require additional administration from 1 to 1.7 ml of the drug to achieve full anesthesia. In most cases there is no need to perform painful palatal injections oxymetholone. For anesthesia of palatal sections and suturing to create a palatine depot needs about 0.1 ml per injection. When you delete several adjacent teeth number of injections can usually be limited. In the case of the removal of the premolars of the mandible in the absence of inflammation can be dispensed with mandibular anesthesia, because infiltration anesthesia provided by injection of 1.7 ml per tooth is usually sufficient. If this path is not able to achieve the desired effect, it is necessary to perform an additional injection of 1-1.7 ml of the drug in the submucosa in the transitional fold of the lower jaw from the oxymethobol vestibular side. If in this case did not reach full anesthesia is necessary to blockade the mandibular nerve.
To prepare the tooth cavity or to the sealing treatment under any tooth crown, with the exception of the lower molars, shows the introduction of the drug in doses of from 0.5 to 1.7 ml each tooth on the type of infiltration anesthesia from vestibular side. The exact amount depends on the desired depth and duration of the procedure. When performing a medical procedure may be administered to an adult 7 articaine mg per 1 kg of body weight. Duration of anesthesia, within which to conduct intervention is 30-45 minutes.Side effects:
The drug is usually well tolerated, but may develop the following side effects: On the part of the central nervous system (depends on the applied dose): headache, impaired consciousness until his loss, respiratory disorders, up until it stops, muscle tremors, involuntary twitching muscles, sometimes progressing up to generalized seizures, the part of the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; the part of the organ of vision: rarely – “blurred” in the eyes, transient blindness. cardio-vascular system: moderately expressed disturbances of hemodynamics, manifested in lowering blood pressure, tachycardia or bradycardia, inhibition of cardiovascular activity that extreme, can lead to collapse and cardiac arrest, which threatens the patient’s life. Allergic reaction: swelling or inflammation at the injection site; in other areas – skin redness, itching, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, angioedema varying severity (including swelling of the upper and / or lower lips and / or cheeks, glottis with difficulty swallowing, hives, difficulty breathing).All these phenomena may progress to anaphylactic shock. Local reactions: swelling or inflammation at the injection site; occurrence of ischemic zones in the injection site (up to the development of tissue necrosis – Accidental intravascular administration); Other: often observed headaches related probably to the presence of the drug epinephrine; other side effects due to the action of epinephrine oxymethobol (tachycardia, arrhythmia, increased blood pressure) occur rarely; nerve damage (up to the development of paralysis) – occurs only in violation of the injection technique.